Abstract

Impulse response functions for an incremental luminous pulse (ON flash) or a decremental luminous pulse (OFF flash) were derived for twelve young (19–24 years old) and ten old (65–84 years old) observers. Thresholds were measured for two pulses separated by stimulus-onset-asynchronies from 13.3 to 186.7 ms. The pulses had a spatial Gaussian shape and were presented as increments or decrements on a 15  cd/m2 equal-energy white background, having the same chromaticity as the pulse. A spatial four-alternative forced-choice method was combined with a staircase procedure. Retinal illuminance was equated individually by heterochromatic flicker photometry and using a 2.3-mm exit pupil in a Maxwellian-view optical system to reduce the effects of age-related changes and individual variations in lens density and pupil size. Luminance ON- and OFF-impulse response functions calculated from the threshold data revealed significant age-related changes in the response amplitude of both first excitatory and first inhibitory phases. However, there were no significant changes in the time to the first peak or the second peak. These age-related changes in luminance varying ON- and OFF-impulse response functions (IRFs), reflecting putative properties of the magnocellular pathway, are discussed in relation to motion detection and the balance of ON and OFF pathways across the life span.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, A. Panorgias, and J. S. Werner, “Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge colour test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, A65–A76 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L. Shi and K. Shinomori, “Amplitude difference and similar time course of impulse responses in positive- and negative- contrast detection,” Vis. Res. 77, 21–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Aging of human short-wave cone pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13422–13427 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. J. Komban, J. M. Alonso, and Q. Zaidi, “Darks are processed faster than lights,” J. Neurosci. 31, 8654–8658 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Xing, C. I. Yeh, and R. M. Shapley, “Generation of black-dominant responses in V1 cortex,” J. Neurosci. 30, 13504–13512 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “The impulse response of S-cone pathways in detection of increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 341–347 (2008).

2007 (2)

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. McKendrick, G. P. Sampson, M. J. Walland, and D. R. Badcock, “Contrast sensitivity changes due to glaucoma and normal aging: low-spatial-frequency losses in both magnocellular and parvocellular pathways,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2115–2122 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Senescence of the temporal impulse response to a luminous pulse,” Vis. Res. 43, 617–627 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. S. Werner, K. A. Schelble, and M. L. Bieber, “Age-related increases in photopic increment thresholds are not due to an elevation in intrinsic noise,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S48–S52 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. Chubb and J. H. Nam, “Variance of high contrast textures is sensed using negative half-wave rectification,” Vis. Res. 40, 1677–1694 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, and J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. C. Burr and C. Morrone, “Temporal impulse response functions for luminance and colour during saccades,” Vis. Res. 36, 2069–2078 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (4)

K. Uchikawa and T. Yoshizawa, “Temporal responses to chromatic and achromatic change inferred from temporal double-pulse integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1697–1705 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. C. Burr and M. C. Morrone, “Impulse-response functions for chromatic and achromatic stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1706–1713 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1105 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

A. B. Watson, “Derivation of the impulse response: comments on the method of Roufs and Blommaert,” Vis. Res. 22, 1335–1337 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

A. B. Watson, “Probability summation over time,” Vis. Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, and N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sens. Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

1975 (1)

J. Krüger and B. Fischer, “Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retinal and geniculate neurons of the cat,” Biol. Cybernet. 20, 223–236 (1975).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Jung, “Neuronale Grundlagen des Hell-Dunkelsehens und der Farbwahrnehmung,” Bericht d. Ophthalm. Ges. 66, 69–111 (1964).

1961 (1)

1954 (1)

Alonso, J. M.

S. J. Komban, J. M. Alonso, and Q. Zaidi, “Darks are processed faster than lights,” J. Neurosci. 31, 8654–8658 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alonso, J.-M.

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andolina, I. M.

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

Badcock, D. R.

A. M. McKendrick, G. P. Sampson, M. J. Walland, and D. R. Badcock, “Contrast sensitivity changes due to glaucoma and normal aging: low-spatial-frequency losses in both magnocellular and parvocellular pathways,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2115–2122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, G.

A. Fiorentini, G. Baumgartner, S. Magnussen, P. H. Schiller, and J. Thomas, “The perception of lightness and darkness: relations to neuronal receptive fields,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann and J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, 1990), pp. 129–161.

Bieber, M. L.

J. S. Werner, K. A. Schelble, and M. L. Bieber, “Age-related increases in photopic increment thresholds are not due to an elevation in intrinsic noise,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S48–S52 (2001).
[Crossref]

Burr, D. C.

D. C. Burr and C. Morrone, “Temporal impulse response functions for luminance and colour during saccades,” Vis. Res. 36, 2069–2078 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. C. Burr and M. C. Morrone, “Impulse-response functions for chromatic and achromatic stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1706–1713 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cao, D.

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chubb, C.

C. Chubb and J. H. Nam, “Variance of high contrast textures is sensed using negative half-wave rectification,” Vis. Res. 40, 1677–1694 (2000).
[Crossref]

de Lange Dzn, H.

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1105 (1993).
[Crossref]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1105 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, and N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sens. Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Ehrenstein, W. H.

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini, G. Baumgartner, S. Magnussen, P. H. Schiller, and J. Thomas, “The perception of lightness and darkness: relations to neuronal receptive fields,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann and J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, 1990), pp. 129–161.

Fischer, B.

J. Krüger and B. Fischer, “Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retinal and geniculate neurons of the cat,” Biol. Cybernet. 20, 223–236 (1975).
[Crossref]

Harvey, L. O.

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, and J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hepler, N. K.

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, and N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sens. Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Hock, H. S.

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, M.

Jancke, D.

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jin, J.

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, R.

R. Jung, “Neuronale Grundlagen des Hell-Dunkelsehens und der Farbwahrnehmung,” Bericht d. Ophthalm. Ges. 66, 69–111 (1964).

Kaplan, E.

E. Kaplan, “The M, P, and K pathways of the primate visual system,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2003), pp. 481–491.

Kelly, D. H.

Komban, S. J.

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Komban, J. M. Alonso, and Q. Zaidi, “Darks are processed faster than lights,” J. Neurosci. 31, 8654–8658 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kremers, J.

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kremkow, J.

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krüger, J.

J. Krüger and B. Fischer, “Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retinal and geniculate neurons of the cat,” Biol. Cybernet. 20, 223–236 (1975).
[Crossref]

Lashgari, R.

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. B.

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[Crossref]

Leventhal, A. G.

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, Z.

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

Magnussen, S.

A. Fiorentini, G. Baumgartner, S. Magnussen, P. H. Schiller, and J. Thomas, “The perception of lightness and darkness: relations to neuronal receptive fields,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann and J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, 1990), pp. 129–161.

McKendrick, A. M.

A. M. McKendrick, G. P. Sampson, M. J. Walland, and D. R. Badcock, “Contrast sensitivity changes due to glaucoma and normal aging: low-spatial-frequency losses in both magnocellular and parvocellular pathways,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2115–2122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morrone, C.

D. C. Burr and C. Morrone, “Temporal impulse response functions for luminance and colour during saccades,” Vis. Res. 36, 2069–2078 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morrone, M. C.

Nakano, Y.

Nam, J. H.

C. Chubb and J. H. Nam, “Variance of high contrast textures is sensed using negative half-wave rectification,” Vis. Res. 40, 1677–1694 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nortmann, N.

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

Panorgias, A.

Pokorny, J.

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rekauzke, S.

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sampson, G. P.

A. M. McKendrick, G. P. Sampson, M. J. Walland, and D. R. Badcock, “Contrast sensitivity changes due to glaucoma and normal aging: low-spatial-frequency losses in both magnocellular and parvocellular pathways,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2115–2122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schefrin, B. E.

Schelble, K. A.

J. S. Werner, K. A. Schelble, and M. L. Bieber, “Age-related increases in photopic increment thresholds are not due to an elevation in intrinsic noise,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S48–S52 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schiller, P. H.

A. Fiorentini, G. Baumgartner, S. Magnussen, P. H. Schiller, and J. Thomas, “The perception of lightness and darkness: relations to neuronal receptive fields,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann and J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, 1990), pp. 129–161.

Schöner, G.

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shapley, R. M.

D. Xing, C. I. Yeh, and R. M. Shapley, “Generation of black-dominant responses in V1 cortex,” J. Neurosci. 30, 13504–13512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

L. Shi and K. Shinomori, “Amplitude difference and similar time course of impulse responses in positive- and negative- contrast detection,” Vis. Res. 77, 21–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shinomori, K.

K. Shinomori, A. Panorgias, and J. S. Werner, “Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge colour test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, A65–A76 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Shi and K. Shinomori, “Amplitude difference and similar time course of impulse responses in positive- and negative- contrast detection,” Vis. Res. 77, 21–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Aging of human short-wave cone pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13422–13427 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “The impulse response of S-cone pathways in detection of increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 341–347 (2008).

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Impulse response of an S-cone pathway in the aging visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1570–1577 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Senescence of the temporal impulse response to a luminous pulse,” Vis. Res. 43, 617–627 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spectral mechanisms of spatially induced blackness: data and quantitative model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 372–387 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, Y. Nakano, and K. Uchikawa, “Influence of the illuminance and spectral composition of surround fields on spatially induced blackness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2383–2388 (1994).
[Crossref]

Smith, V. C.

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[Crossref]

Snodderly, D. M.

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, and N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sens. Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Spillmann, L.

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. H. Ehrenstein and L. Spillmann, “Time thresholds for increments and decrements in luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 419–426 (1983).
[Crossref]

Staadt, R.

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

Steele, V. G.

Thomas, J.

A. Fiorentini, G. Baumgartner, S. Magnussen, P. H. Schiller, and J. Thomas, “The perception of lightness and darkness: relations to neuronal receptive fields,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann and J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, 1990), pp. 129–161.

Tregear, S. J.

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, and J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[Crossref]

Uchikawa, K.

Walland, M. J.

A. M. McKendrick, G. P. Sampson, M. J. Walland, and D. R. Badcock, “Contrast sensitivity changes due to glaucoma and normal aging: low-spatial-frequency losses in both magnocellular and parvocellular pathways,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2115–2122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, “Derivation of the impulse response: comments on the method of Roufs and Blommaert,” Vis. Res. 22, 1335–1337 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, “Probability summation over time,” Vis. Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), pp.1–45 (Chap. 6).

Werner, J. S.

K. Shinomori, A. Panorgias, and J. S. Werner, “Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge colour test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, A65–A76 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Aging of human short-wave cone pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13422–13427 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “The impulse response of S-cone pathways in detection of increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 341–347 (2008).

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Impulse response of an S-cone pathway in the aging visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1570–1577 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Senescence of the temporal impulse response to a luminous pulse,” Vis. Res. 43, 617–627 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. S. Werner, K. A. Schelble, and M. L. Bieber, “Age-related increases in photopic increment thresholds are not due to an elevation in intrinsic noise,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S48–S52 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, and J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spectral mechanisms of spatially induced blackness: data and quantitative model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 372–387 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. S. Werner and V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[Crossref]

Whittle, P.

P. Whittle, “Increments and decrements: luminance discrimination,” Vis. Res. 26, 1677–1691 (1986).
[Crossref]

Xing, D.

D. Xing, C. I. Yeh, and R. M. Shapley, “Generation of black-dominant responses in V1 cortex,” J. Neurosci. 30, 13504–13512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. I.

D. Xing, C. I. Yeh, and R. M. Shapley, “Generation of black-dominant responses in V1 cortex,” J. Neurosci. 30, 13504–13512 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yeh, T.

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yoshizawa, T.

Yund, E. W.

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, and N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sens. Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Zaidi, Q.

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Komban, J. M. Alonso, and Q. Zaidi, “Darks are processed faster than lights,” J. Neurosci. 31, 8654–8658 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zele, A. J.

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bericht d. Ophthalm. Ges. (1)

R. Jung, “Neuronale Grundlagen des Hell-Dunkelsehens und der Farbwahrnehmung,” Bericht d. Ophthalm. Ges. 66, 69–111 (1964).

Biol. Cybernet. (1)

J. Krüger and B. Fischer, “Symmetry between the visual B- and D-systems and equivalence of center and surround: studies of light increment and decrement in retinal and geniculate neurons of the cat,” Biol. Cybernet. 20, 223–236 (1975).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

J. S. Werner, K. A. Schelble, and M. L. Bieber, “Age-related increases in photopic increment thresholds are not due to an elevation in intrinsic noise,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S48–S52 (2001).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. M. McKendrick, G. P. Sampson, M. J. Walland, and D. R. Badcock, “Contrast sensitivity changes due to glaucoma and normal aging: low-spatial-frequency losses in both magnocellular and parvocellular pathways,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2115–2122 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Neurosci. (4)

D. Xing, C. I. Yeh, and R. M. Shapley, “Generation of black-dominant responses in V1 cortex,” J. Neurosci. 30, 13504–13512 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, X. Liu, I. M. Andolina, X. Li, Y. Lu, L. Spillmann, and W. Wang, “Asymmetries of dark and bright negative afterimages are paralleled by subcortical ON and OFF poststimulus responses,” J. Neurosci. 37, 1984–1996 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rekauzke, N. Nortmann, R. Staadt, H. S. Hock, G. Schöner, and D. Jancke, “Temporal asymmetry in dark-bright processing initiates propagating activity across primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 36, 1902–1913 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Komban, J. M. Alonso, and Q. Zaidi, “Darks are processed faster than lights,” J. Neurosci. 31, 8654–8658 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (11)

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Impulse response of an S-cone pathway in the aging visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1570–1577 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, A. Panorgias, and J. S. Werner, “Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge colour test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33, A65–A76 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, Y. Nakano, and K. Uchikawa, “Influence of the illuminance and spectral composition of surround fields on spatially induced blackness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2383–2388 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spectral mechanisms of spatially induced blackness: data and quantitative model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 372–387 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Yoshizawa and K. Uchikawa, “Temporal integration characteristics of chromatic response as determined by use of the isoluminant double-pulse method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2069–2080 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa and M. Ikeda, “Temporal integration of chromatic double pulses for detection of equal-luminance wavelength changes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 2109–2115 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. S. Werner and V. G. Steele, “Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2122–2130 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa and T. Yoshizawa, “Temporal responses to chromatic and achromatic change inferred from temporal double-pulse integration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1697–1705 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. C. Burr and M. C. Morrone, “Impulse-response functions for chromatic and achromatic stimuli,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1706–1713 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[Crossref]

Neuron (1)

S. J. Komban, J. Kremkow, J. Jin, Y. Wang, R. Lashgari, X. Li, Q. Zaidi, and J.-M. Alonso, “Neuronal and perceptual differences in the temporal processing of darks and lights,” Neuron 82, 224–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neurosci. (1)

Y. Yang, Z. Liang, G. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, and A. G. Leventhal, “Aging affects contrast response functions and adaptation of middle temporal visual area neurons in rhesus monkeys,” Neurosci. 156, 748–757 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Aging of human short-wave cone pathways,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13422–13427 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sens. Processes (1)

R. L. De Valois, D. M. Snodderly, E. W. Yund, and N. K. Hepler, “Responses of macaque lateral geniculate cells to luminance and color figures,” Sens. Processes 1, 244–259 (1977).

Vis. Res. (12)

P. Whittle, “Increments and decrements: luminance discrimination,” Vis. Res. 26, 1677–1691 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. Chubb and J. H. Nam, “Variance of high contrast textures is sensed using negative half-wave rectification,” Vis. Res. 40, 1677–1694 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “Senescence of the temporal impulse response to a luminous pulse,” Vis. Res. 43, 617–627 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schefrin, S. J. Tregear, L. O. Harvey, and J. S. Werner, “Senescent changes in scotopic contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 39, 3728–3736 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. C. Burr and C. Morrone, “Temporal impulse response functions for luminance and colour during saccades,” Vis. Res. 36, 2069–2078 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. Shi and K. Shinomori, “Amplitude difference and similar time course of impulse responses in positive- and negative- contrast detection,” Vis. Res. 77, 21–31 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “The time course of adaptation in macaque retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 36, 913–931 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, “Derivation of the impulse response: comments on the method of Roufs and Blommaert,” Vis. Res. 22, 1335–1337 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. B. Watson, “Probability summation over time,” Vis. Res. 19, 515–522 (1979).
[Crossref]

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “The impulse response of S-cone pathways in detection of increments and decrements,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 341–347 (2008).

Other (3)

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), pp.1–45 (Chap. 6).

E. Kaplan, “The M, P, and K pathways of the primate visual system,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2003), pp. 481–491.

A. Fiorentini, G. Baumgartner, S. Magnussen, P. H. Schiller, and J. Thomas, “The perception of lightness and darkness: relations to neuronal receptive fields,” in Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, L. Spillmann and J. S. Werner, eds. (Academic, 1990), pp. 129–161.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Temporal profile of positive contrast for incremental flashes (left) and negative contrast for decremental flashes (right) in the double-pulse method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Threshold data (left panels) and luminance ON- and OFF-impulse response functions (right panels) for one younger (24-year-old, top panels) and one older (84-year-old, bottom panels) observer. Open and filled circles denote thresholds for luminance increments and decrements, respectively. Error bars show ± 1 SEM. Solid and dotted curves are model fits to increment and decrement thresholds (left panels) and ON-IRFs and OFF-IRFs (right panels), respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mean peak time (left panel) and mean peak amplitude (right panel) for luminance ON- and OFF-IRFs for younger and older observers. Error bars are ± 1 SEM. For each condition, the left bar denotes the peak of the positive phase, and the right bar denotes the peak of the negative phase. Asterisks denote statistically significant differences; the peak amplitude of the first positive phase is reduced significantly with age for both the ON- ( p < 0.01 ) and OFF-IRFs ( p < 0.001 ).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the first (positive) and second (negative) peak time between luminance ( L + M ) ON- and OFF-IRFs for all observers. Open triangles and gray circles denote younger and older observers’ data points, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the first positive peak amplitude (top panel) and the second negative peak amplitude (bottom panel) between luminance ( L + M ) ON- and OFF-IRFs. Open triangles and gray circles denote younger and older observers, respectively. Solid lines are the regression lines for all data points.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison between negative contrast thresholds for decremental flashes and positive contrast thresholds for incremental flashes for each SOA for twelve younger observers (top panel) and ten older observers (bottom panel). Crosses denote the six and four data sets of the younger and older groups, respectively, that showed no significant difference between positive and negative contrast thresholds (see text for explanation). Open and filled symbols show individual observers’ data sets for which positive contrast thresholds are significantly larger or smaller than negative contrast thresholds, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Top panel: average luminance ON- and OFF-IRFs for younger and older observers, as calculated from the mean of the first and second peaks. Open squares and filled triangles denote mean peak points of ON- and OFF-IRFs, respectively. Error bars indicate ±1 SEM. Horizontal error bars are not visible as they were small. Bottom panel: temporal contrast sensitivity function (tCSF) calculated from the IRFs. Solid and dotted curves denote IRFs and tCSFs of ON- and OFF-IRFs, and black and gray curves show the functions of younger and older observers, respectively. The tCSFs were normalized to the peak sensitivity of the OFF-IRF of the younger observers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Mean of Peak Time and Peak Amplitude in First and Second Phase a , b

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C P = I T / I B = ( I B + Δ I ) / I B ( Δ I > 0 ) ,
C N = ( 2 I B I T ) / I B = ( I B + Δ I ) / I B ( Δ I > 0 ) .
f IRF ( t ) = a 0 H ( t ) · t · sin { 2 π [ a 1 t · ( t + 1 ) a 2 ] } exp ( a 3 t ) ,
R ( t , τ ) = Δ I ( τ ) [ f IRF ( t ) + H ( t τ ) f IRF ( t τ ) ] ,
p ( τ ) = 1 ( 1 r ) exp ( [ 0 T | R ( t , τ ) | β d t ] ) ,