Abstract

GaN-based green light-emitting diode (LED) structures suffer from low internal quantum efficiency (IQE), known as the “green gap” problem. The IQE of LED structures is expected to be improved to some extent by exploiting the Purcell effect. In this study, the Purcell effect on the IQE of green LED structures is investigated numerically using a finite-difference time-domain simulation. The Purcell factor of flip-chip LED structures is found to be more than three times as high as that of epi-up LED structures, which is attributed to the high-reflectance mirror near the active region in the flip-chip LED structures. When the unmodified IQE is 20%, the relative enhancement of IQE can be greater than 50%, without utilizing the surface-plasmon coupling effect. Based on the simulation results, the “green gap” problem of GaN-based green LEDs is expected to be mitigated significantly by optimizing flip-chip LED structures to maximize the Purcell effect.

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Other (27)

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. SchnickA revolution in lightingNat. Mater.201514454458

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. SpeckThe efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lightingPhys. Status Solidi A2015212899913

J. Cho, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and E. F. SchubertWhite light-emitting diodes: History, progress, and futureLaser Photonics Rev.2017111600147

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. MukaiWhite light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacyJ. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.201043354002

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, , M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. HahnNew developments in green LEDsPhys. Status Solidi A200920611251129

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. NunoueInGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral rangeAppl. Phys. Express20136111004

M. A. Maur, A. Pecchia, G. Penazzi, W. Rodrigues, and A. D. CarloEfficiency drop in green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes: The role of random alloy fluctuationsPhys. Rev. Lett.2016116027401

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, and J. I. ShimAnalysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active materialAppl. Phys. Lett.2012100131109

H. Y. Ryu, G. H. Ryu, Y. H. Choi, and B. J. MaModeling and simulation of efficiency droop in GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes incorporating the effect of reduced active volume of InGaN quantum wellsCurr. Appl. Phys.20171712981302

E. M. PurcellSpontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequenciesPhys. Rev.194669681

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. SchererSurface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wellsNat. Mater.20043601605

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, G. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. HsuEfficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scatterinOpt. Express201422A842A856

K. G. Lee, K. Y. Choi, J. H. Kim, and S. H. SongExperimental observation of electroluminescence enhancement on green LEDs mediated by surface plasmonsOpt. Express201422A1303A1309

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. TamadaHighly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum filmsAppl. Phys. Lett.2015106121112

C. Y. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. YangDependence of resonant coupling between surface plasmons and an InGaN quantum well on metallic structureAppl. Phys. Lett.200689203113

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. SorefPractical enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmonsAppl. Phys. Lett.200790111107

C. F. Chu, C. C. Cheng, W. H. Liu, J. Y. Chu, F. H. Fan, H. C. Cheng, T. Doan, and C. A. TranHigh brightness GaN vertical light-emitting diodes on metal alloy for general lighting applicationProc. IEEE20109811971207

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. HahnHigh-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emittersIEEE Trans. Electron Devices2010577987

C. G. Song, Y. J. Cha, S. K. Oh, J. S. Kwak, H. J. Park, and T. JeongOptimized via-hole structure in GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodesJ. Korean Phys. Soc.201668159163

H. MorawitzSelf-coupling of a two-level system by a mirrorPhys. Rev.19691871792

R. M. Amos and W. L. BarnesModification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu 31 ions close to a thin metal mirrorPhys. Rev. B19975572497254

H. Y. RyuModification of internal quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via the Purcell effectOpt. Express201523A1157A1166

Y. Xu, J. Vučković, R. K. Lee, O. J. Painter, A. Scherer, and A. YarivFinite-difference time-domain calculation of spontaneous emission lifetime in a microcavityJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B199916465474

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. LeeSpontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavityPhys. Rev. B19996046884695

M. Nami and D. F. FeezellOptical properties of plasmonic light-emitting diodes based on flip-chip III-nitride core-shell nanowiresOpt. Express2014222944529455

A. TafloveComputational Electrodynamics: The FiniteDifference Time-Domain MethodArtech House Inc.1995

E. D. PalikHandbook of Optical Constants of SolidAcademic1998

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